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States must ensure that victims do not again have to endure violations of their rights. To this end, states must undertake institutional reforms and other measures necessary to ensure respect for the rule of law, foster and sustain a culture of respect for human rights, and restore or establish public trust in government institutions.


Adequate representation of women and minority groups in public institutions is essential to the achievement of these aims. Institutional reforms aimed at preventing a recurrence of violations should be developed through a process of broad public consultations, including the participation of victims and other sectors of civil society.


Such reforms should advance the following objectives:

  • Consistent adherence by public institutions to the rule of law.
  • The repeal of laws that contribute to or authorise violations of human rights and/or humanitarian law and enactment of legislative and other measures necessary to ensure respect for human rights and humanitarian law, including measures that safeguard democratic institutions and processes.
  • Civilian control of military and security forces and intelligence services and disbandment of parastatal armed forces.
  • Reintegration of children involved in armed conflict into society.


Before advancing, please watch the following video on institutional reform: